5 Different Types of Jet Engines & it’s Working
There are five main types of jet engines. Jet engines, excluding the ramjet, all have four basic stages: intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust. These systems convert heat energy and high-pressure air to produce thrust. Thrust may be generated through high power exhaust or through propeller systems. Each type of jet engine has its own unique properties.
After the air enters through an inlet, it enters the compressor. The compressor may be axial or centrifugal. Air flows through an axial compressor parallel to the axis of rotation, while air flows through a centrifugal compressor perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Centrifugal compressors are less effective at creating thrust and are less fuel efficient, but they increase enough pressure for efficient combustion within one stage and are easier and more cost effective to manufacture. After the air is compressed, it passes through the combustion chamber. In there, the fuel/air mixture is ignited, and the resulting gases are expelled and thrusts the aircraft forward.
Turboprops are similar to turbojets. The difference is that the energy generated from combustion is used to power a propeller instead of to produce exhaust. Most of the aircraft that have turboprops are small airliners and transport aircraft because they are more efficient at flight speeds below 500 mph. Air and gas pressure is also used to rotate the turbine, which is connected to the compressor, and therefore powers it throughout the flight.
Turbofans are used on most commercial airliners because they increase efficiency. They are similar to turbojets, but instead of passing all of the air through the compressor and combustion chamber, the remaining air passes through a fan and the cold air is mixed with the hot gas and used to increase exhaust power. This increases the thrust without increasing fuel consumption.
Turboshafts are similar to turboprops but instead of powering a propeller, it powers a helicopter rotor. The speed of the helicopter’s rotor is independent of the rotating speed of the gas generator, which allows the rotor speed to remain constant.
Ramjets are primarily used in guided-missile systems and space vehicles. This is due to the fact that they require assisted takeoff and they produce small amounts of thrust below the speed of sound. They are similar to turbojets, but do not contain the rotating machinery. Their compression ratio depends on forward speed.
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